Courier Delivery Services Or In House Delivery?

The following may help you to decide whether to use your own (in-house) delivery vehicle or use outside courier delivery services, such as a custom, immediate, or route delivery service. This analysis is based on monthly costs to operate a delivery vehicle. Also keep in mind:

The cost of a vehicle is not what you pay for it, but the total cost when you are finished using it. First, determine the cost of operating your own delivery vehicle:

– Vehicle cost (Lease or Purchase)
– Fuel cost (Gasoline or Diesel)
– Insurance (Commercial and Liability)
– Maintenance (Repairs and Upkeep)

Next, determine the employee cost to operate the delivery vehicle:

– Wages and Salaries (State and Federal income taxes, including FICA)
– Federal and State fees (Workers Compensation, Unemployment insurance, etc.)
– Employee benefits (Health, Life, Dental insurance, 401k, 403b, etc.)
– Fill-in replacement (Vacation, sick leave, etc.)

Then, determine how the delivery vehicle is to be utilized:

– On Demand, (deliver immediately)
– Daily Route (delivery once or twice a day)
– Weekly Delivery (deliver the same day each week)

After the total cost is determined, divide the number of deliveries per month by the total monthly cost of the service provided. This number will be the average cost per delivery of each delivery. If you also keep track of the mileage each month, you can easily determine the cost per mile to operate the vehicle. Knowing your cost per mile will help you compare your cost with local courier delivery services as many charge by the mile after a base charge.

Once you have the in-house cost to provide delivery services to your customer, contact a local courier delivery services company to compare rates to determine whether to keep your existing delivery in-house, or contract with your courier delivery services company. Delivery service companies are always looking for new clients and could help analyze your current delivery needs and quite possibly save you time and money in the process.

If you are looking for cheap insurance for your van, you should check out supermarket giant Tesco's and compare tesco van insurance today. Their quotes are reasonably priced and they can get your van covered in a matter of minutes.
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Four Factors You Must Understand and Can Control to Change Your Credit Score

Your credit score is a snapshot of the contents of your credit report at the time the score was calculated. If your score is high (above 900), then you're due some congratulations. Read on at your desire for some helpful hints to further improve your score. If your score is considered medium to low, then you should immediately read this article and begin to apply the useful hints.

Your credit score is essentially a translation of your credit report into a 3 digit score that enables lenders to evaluate your application for credit in a fast and more objective manner. Most people do not realize that although they are entitled to receive their credit report, free of charge, annually from each of 3 reporting agencies (TransUnion, Equifax, etc), obtaining their credit score requires a payment to one of these services. The credit score is one of a few factors that a lender uses when deciding to extend credit, provide insurance or financial services. Understanding the contents of your credit report and your credit score, is critical if you are considering a major purchase where you will seek credit (or a loan) or even if you're simply changing auto insurance companies.

Besides your credit score, other factors considered by lenders include: length of employment, income and previous experience with a customer. Depending on what you're applying for, some lenders will consider the various factors differently, applying more weight to one than another.

In theory, if you have a high score, lenders should be able to conclude that you are capable of repaying your debts. This enables lenders to provide you with the best available loan terms, including interest rates. If you can understand the factors that determine your credit score, you should be able to improve upon those where you're weakest and increase your overall score.

Factors

1) Amount paid on an open real estate account is too low – if the balance remaining on your home or auto loan is close to the value of the property, it may be considered a negative factor when determining creditworthiness. Lenders will look more favorably on a customer who has committed a large down payment to a home or auto.

2) Available credit on open revolving credit accounts is too low – having credit available is a sign that you are able to manage your finances responsibly. Lenders like customers that have large amounts of credit available.

3) Balances on your open accounts are too high in comparison to their credit limits – it is a good idea to use your accounts regularly, but remember to keep you balances low in comparison to your available credit limits. If you have 2 – 3 Visa, Mastercard and / or American Express cards and if you're carrying a large balance on these credit card (s), it's a signal that you may have borrowed too much and may be living above your means. This high ratio of balances to credit limits on open accounts indicates you do not have much available credit. Seeking more credit may be viewed negatively by lenders.

4) Average credit amount on open real estate accounts is too low – having credit available to you is a sign that you are able to manage your finances responsibly. Lenders like to see that consumers have a large amount of credit available to them.

Improving your credit score

Regardless of whether your score is high or low, when you receive your credit report and score, there may be a lot of discussion and interpretation included. You should read the report thoroughly and identify what opportunities you can immediately take to improve your score. Most of the easy fixes (which I refer to as, "low hanging fruit") may be disputing and correcting errors or simply closing a few older retail accounts that you have not used for a while and you do not intend to use anymore . Consumer reporting agencies must correct or delete inaccurate, incomplete or unverifiable information.

For example, if you opened an account with Target 6 years ago in order to save 10% on a large purchase, you have not used the card since, you've paid off the purchase long ago and you have other older active accounts, it would be a good idea to close the account. You may also discover errors on your report such as an unpaid and overdue balance on an account with a doctor or local merchant. If an error exists which is negatively impacting your score, you have the right to dispute the error. If you believe your debt was paid on time and in full and / or at least paid in full, then you should approach the person / company that is reporting the issue with your account. You may request that they remove the documentation of a problem from your account.

Since your credit score is a snapshot of your credit report at the time it was calculated, long term responsible credit behavior is the most effective way to improve future scores. Following are the best ways to improve your score.

a) Pay bills on time – utility bills, credit cards, mortgage and auto loans are the obvious bills to pay. However, paying medical bills and insurance on time also impacts your credit score.

b) Lower balances on revolving credit cards – this assists factors 2 & 3 above. This increases your available credit on card.

c) Use credit wisely – paying bills on time and lowering balances is the first step. Limit applications for additional credit, unless, of course you're seeking better terms to pay down balances on a high interest loan / credit card. Continually applying for new cards, in order to swap balances to lower interest cards, may appear to save you money, but it can be viewed as a negative by consumer reporting agencies.

d) Regularly review your credit report to ensure it is accurate

If you're the type that has no idea where your turbulent credit history has left you in the eyes of the lender, then do not worry, it's easy to request and review your credit report. It costs a little money to receive a credit score with your report. However, it's an exercise that's well worth your time and the minimal expense. If you are in the market for a new home or auto, then most likely, you'll seek a new loan. If you can confidently walk into an open house or new car dealer, knowing that you'll have no problems getting the loan to complete the purchase, then you'll likely get your choice of home or car that's in your price range.

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The Differences Between Insurance Policy and Option Contract

Options are attractive to the private trader due to their special advantages. By buying options, you are given the opportunity to participating in the market with limited known risk. Besides, the capital that you need to invest is just a small fraction of the price of the underlying shares. Option buyer need to pay a premium when buying options, which is very much less than the stock prices.

For those who are not familiar how actually options work, it may be a little bit confusing in the beginning. Options actually share a lot of same characteristics like insurance policies, which most people should be able to understand. We will get a clearer picture of how literally options work by checking through the features that options and insurance policies have.

For an insurance policy, the policy is actually a contract between the purchaser and the underwriter of the insurance policy. Underwriter of the insurance policy is the company, whose sells the policy. Whereas; option is a contract between the option buyer and seller when there is an initial transaction taking place. Stated in the contract, option buyer has the right to buy an amount of stock from the seller at an agree price within a specific period of time; whereas, seller has to obligate to sell an amount of stock to the buyer at an agree price within a specific period of time. This agreed price is called strike price.

For insurance policy, purchaser pays a premium to the insurance underwriter. The probability payout is influenced by a number of factors, which the premium is dependent. Premium will be charged higher if the risk payout is higher. Whereas for option; purchaser of the option contract pays premium to the writer of the option. A number of factors, which will affect the overall likelihood of a particular stock price being reached, will also affect the amount that needed to be paid as a premium. When the premium for the option is higher, the likelihood of a stock price can reached also higher.

In term of time period, the validity of the insurance policy is within a specific length of time. The passing of time works in favour to the insurance underwriter but against to the purchaser of the insurance policy. For option, it works exactly same as the insurance policy, that is option contract is valid within a specific length of time. When the time passes, it does not favour to the option buyer but favour to option writer.

Upfront is the risk for the purchaser of the insurance contract. The policy is paid by the premium. The insurance underwriter risk is open-ended depending on the terms that are insured. In options trading, the options buyer risk is also known as upfront. The option is paid by the premium. Here are the differences between insurance policy and the option. The option buyer can gain more than premium that he or she has paid for the option but not less than the premium. On the other hand, option writer has open-ended risk potential, which may cause unlimited loss.

In term of payout, if there is any event that has been stated in the insurance policy has occurred, the payout from the insurance company will be a lot more than the original premium paid. If the market direction favours the option buyer, then he or she has unlimited profit potential. The option buyer may make a lot of money, which is many times more than the premium that he or she has been paid.

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Insurance – Natural Peril Exclusions – Flood

Flood is commonly covered by ARPI policies but, on occasions, some policies exclude it or, alternatively, provide the client with the option of extending the policy to cover it as an additional peril. The meaning of flood has been considered infrequently in the English courts and, the courts have first to consider the meaning of flood in the context of the policy as a whole. In the case Young v. Sun Alliance and London Insurance Ltd. [1976] 3 All ER 561, where the word "flood" was incorporated in a phrase with "storm and tempest", it was held not to cover damage caused by three inches of water leaking into a bathroom from an underground spring-storm and tempest suggested a more violent event.

In the case of Computer & Systems Engineering Pic v. John Lelliott (Ilford) Limited and Others (The Times, 23 May 1989), during building operations at the assured's premises, a metal purlin was dropped onto a sprinkler system pipe. The pipe was damaged, allowing water to escape which in turn damaged the property of the assured. The court was asked to decide whether or not the property owner was obliged to bear the risk of damage under clause 22C: 1 of the JCT Standard Form of Building Contract (1980 Edition) because the damage was not caused by "flood" or "bursting of pipes "within the definition of the clause 22. First, the court considered what an ordinary reasonable Englishman would say if asked" What was it that caused the damage? ". His answer would have been "the negligent dropping of the purlin which fractured the sprinkler pipe";

As a result of the lack of direct case law, the court referred to the various insurance cases dealing with the term "flood '*. It relied upon Young v. Sun Alliance (above) and Commonwealth Smelting Limited v. Guardian Royal Exchange Assurance Limited [1986] 1 Lloyd's Rep 121, as supporting the propositions that:

– flood should involve some natural phenomena or abnormal occurrence; and

– "bursting and overflowing" were to be construed intransitively, involving some interruption of a pipe from within. (In other words, without the assistance of extraneous factors.)

Therefore, the damage to the sprinkler system constituted neither a flood nor a bursting or overflowing of water from tanks, apparatus or pipes. The Court of Appeal confirmed the decision suggesting that the word "flood" suggested the invasion of property by a large volume of water caused by a rapid accumulation or sudden release of water from an external source, usually, but not necessarily, as the result of a natural phenomenon such as storm, tempest or downpour. Certainly, US authorities have not distinguished between man-made floods (such as the bursting of a dam) and floods resulting from natural perils.

Thus, as when considering the definition of any phrase within the context of ARPI, a court will:

– look at the context in which the word is found;

– enquire as to whether or not the word has any ordinary meaning in common parlance; and

– look at judicial precedent to see where the courts have previously been required to consider the word in a similar context.

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How I Leased a $ 60,000 Car For Only $ 111 a Month and Why I Think Dealer Leasing is Dumb

The rational behind leasing a car is simple; you basically rent the car for a period of time then drop it off when the lease expires without any obligation (generally if the car is clean) or further costs.

What you are doing is paying for the depreciation of the vehicle during the lease. So, if a car is new and worth $ 50,000 today and in 3 years it's expected to be worth $ 30,000 then you as the lessee basically pay the depreciation of the car over the 3 years to the lessor and get a new car every 3 years.

Seems simple and smart, right? Wrong, I am going to show you a better way drive cars if you can raise a lump sum of money. For me it was obvious, I am in the business of raising lump sums of money to settle debt.

So a BMW M3 Cabriolet (convertible) is a gorgeous car, it's a driver's machine and is truly sublime. A few years ago, and after several years of very frugal living and driving cheap cars my accountant talked me into spending some money. And that was tough for him to do; after all he is the guy that told me cars are a colossal waste of money.

It was 2006 and I was looking for a 2003-4 M3. These cars were selling for $ 80,000 + brand new. I always buy used and private; for 3 reasons:

1) Let someone else pay the depreciation in the first couple of years

2) Dealers usually lie and just tick me off

3) You can usually negotiate a better price with private sellers.

In 2006 used M3 Cabs were selling for $ 50,000 – $ 60,000. A 2003 Imola red M3 Cab for $ 46,000, with low miles really caught my eye. It was cheaper then the rest and red was a rare colour on these cars; She looked stunning.

So I checked it out, drove it and was really impressed. It was my first real experience in a premium German car and I was sold hook, line and sinker.

There was a catch. It was a US car. No big deal right? Wrong, the car had not sold for a reason. It scared buyers. The owner had imported it as a "salvage title" meaning it had been written off in the US. But he had paperwork (albeit dodgy looking but, I verified it) to show that in the State of New Jersey when are car is stolen and written off, and the vehicle later recovered it gets a "salvage title" because the owner was already paid out by the insurance company.

In other states a salvage title means the car was written off in an accident. Salvage titles can not be sold in the US again. So it was not in an accident like most people would normally believe and everything including the VIN checked out on the Carfax report. In fact the car was in flawless shape and found by authorities in a shipping crate ready to go across the Atlantic. It was sold at an auction by the insurance company to my seller.

So the next step was to negotiate a final price. I knew the car was up for sale for almost 6 weeks because I was following the used car ads. That told me the seller was having a difficult time unloading the car because of its history. So I told him, "regardless of the asking price, this car would be very tough for me to unload when I needed to get out of it", and he knew it was true. I offered him $ 38,000 and after some negotiating we settled on $ 40,000.

I got a car everyone else was selling for $ 60,000 or more with lower miles (only 35,000 miles when I got it) for considerably less.

I enjoyed the car for about 36 months, put on another 30,000 miles and sold it for $ 36,000 (I fully disclosed the history to the buyer), my cost to carry the car for 3 years was only about $ 111 / m in depreciation to drive a premium German automobile.

Comparable used cars were leasing for about $ 900 / m with $ 5,000 down at the time I bought mine.

That's how I like to buy cars. It's easy and do not be afraid of private sellers and cheap car ads, check them out; sometimes there is a good reason behind it and nothing really to worry about if you do a little homework and dig deeper.

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CIGNA Dental Insurance – An Honest Review

CIGNA Dental Insurance is available in six different levels of coverage. Depending on what your employer offers you can choose from a plan that reimburses you a portion of your dental costs to an all inclusive plan that does not even have a deductible. These dental plans are offered in addition to CIGNA healthcare plans and are currently only available through an employer sponsored plan. To receive this benefit you must contact your human resource department to request this type of coverage.

The best plan offered by CIGNA dental insurance is the DHMO plan. With this plan you choose a dentist from their network of providers and use them exclusively for your dental work. There are no deductions and no yearly maximum for services. Most of the preventive services do not have co-pays and referrals are not necessary for orthodontic care. You will receive two yearly visits and cleanings, x-rays and pediatric dental services for no extra cost. Enrollee's will also receive a membership into CIGNA Healthy Rewards program. This program will save members up to 65% off of other non traditional health services such as acupuncture and weight management programs.

CIGNA dental insurance also offers a dental savings plan for those who do not have full dental coverage. The CIGNA Plus Savings Plan is not insurance coverage but rather a membership in a savings plan. By providing your membership card to any of the 76,000 registered dentists on the plan you will enjoy deep discounts on all your dental work. These discounts are pre negotiated through CIGNA and can save the individual a considerable sum over a short period of time. Since this is a savings plan there are no insurance forms to fill out or deductibles to pay. You also do not have to worry about preexisting conditions, frequency of visits or a maximum amount of benefits for the year.

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What Constitutes a "Good" Budget?

What makes up a good budget? What expenses should you include in the budget? What can you do about variable expenses in your budget? How can you personalize a budget?

Where are you going?

The key to a good budget or spending plan is knowing where you have been and where you want to go. Knowing where you have been is done by insuring you have written down where all you money has been going. You can find this information by categorizing and reviewing your last 6 months of check registers or other accounting methods you have been employing. If you have no such method in place, you have just uncovered your main budgeting problem which is the first item to be corrected.

If on the other hand you use a check register or other means but have numerous general entries such as "cash" or "miscellaneous" or other unidentifiable labels, this too must be corrected. You MUST know where your money is going before you can divert it. I recommend carrying a small spiral notebook for at least 2 weeks (longer is far better) and recording every cash transaction. I have never had a client or student do this who has not come back to me amazed by what they had learned from this experience.

Budget Labels

Once you have a record of all your expenses for a decent period of time, the remainder of the budgeting process is relatively easy. The following labels can be used to guide you in listing what debts and expenses go where in organizing your finances. Nothing from the list below is written in concrete. So adjust the labels to suit your particular needs. Where an entry is variable, enter a monthly average based upon past history and expected futures.

Here is a suggested list of budget items:

Income:
Your Income
Spouse's Income
Other Income
Expenses:
Fixed Expense
Rent (not mortgage)
Other Housing
Child Care
Child Support
Alimony
House insurance
Car Insurance
Medical / Dental Insurance
Life Insurance
Other Insurance
Variable Expenses:
Utilities
Phone
Cell
Cable
Internet
Other Utility
Transportation
Food
Clothing
Medical Expense
Personal
Entertainment
Savings
Other Variable Expenses
Secured Debt – Those bills / debts which have a tangible asset (Mortgage, Auto, etc)
Un-secured Debt – Those debts which offer nothing tangible that can be taken from you for non-payment (credit cards, medical bills, etc.)

Federal Guidelines For Household Budgets
The following are recommended percentages for household expenses. They are offered by the federal government in bankruptcy counseling nationwide. They should be used only as guidelines.

Housing 25%
Transportation 15%
Utilities 10%
Food 10%
Clothing 5%
Medical 10%
Personal 5%
Other 5%
Savings 10%

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Female Insurance Adjusters

More and more women are discovering the field of Independent Insurance Adjusting and I believe this will have a positive impact on our industry.

There was a time when the females you saw in the field were part of a husband and wife team with the husband as the adjuster and the wife who assisted them. When you did see a female who was the adjuster it was few and far between.

But that is changing.

Not only are women finding that they are capable of doing this job, but many have become quite successful at it.

Organizers by nature, the female adjuster has been able to grasp the need for details that is such an important part of our job. This dedicated attention to the details has resulted in a very good completed work product, and that makes the insurance carriers happy. And women tend not to be afraid to ask the needed questions in order to get things done correctly.

I met a female adjuster last year in her mid thirties and fairly new. She was 5'3 "and 105 pounds at the most. When I saw the ladder she was using I wondered how well she was going to be able to handle it. But let me tell you, she had that ladder out of the truck, set up and she was on the roof so quick even I was impressed. This was no wimpy ladder either! Her inspection practices were good and her scope was correct and complete.

So to all of the new female adjusters and those that are trying to break into the industry I say Welcome!

I think you'll find that this is an exciting rewarding field and one that you can truly expand and utilize your talents, AND be recognized for them.

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Official – Biting your Finger Nails Causes Heart Disease

Scientists at WITS university have discovered that biting your fingernails greatly increases your chances of heart disease. They also have seen a likelihood that you life expectance will be dramatically shortened to that of a heavy smoker.

The heart problems are caused by Bacterial Endocarditis which is an infection of the hearts inner lining (endocardium) and / or the heart valves.
Bacterial Endocarditis occurs when bacteria enters the blood stream, either though Finger Nail Biting or dental procedures. The bacteria then lodges itself heart valves or other damaged heart tissue
This will eventually lead to extensive heart damage which will in turn cause it to fail.

Apart from finger nail biting, you can contract Bacterial Endocarditis through other forms of surgery or dental procedures, teeth whitening is also a culprit. Some other medical procedures (such as colonoscopy, cryoscopy and sigmoidoscopy) increase the risk of bacteria entering the bloodstream.

Flu like symptoms, fever, chills, shaking are signs that you may have contracted Bacterial Endocarditis. You should talk to your doctor immediately. Your doctor will then need to do more tests, such as blood tests and echocardiography (ultrasound) to find out if you have Bacterial Endocarditis.

Usual treatment is a hospital stay for a few days with antibiotics. Antibiotics are usually started intravenously in the hospital, but many people can finish their treatment at home. For more complicated infections, heart surgery may be needed.

Long term damage can occur even if Bacterial Endocarditis is treated. Your heart may be weakened by the infection and may not pump properly, their also may be blood clots or damage to the heart muscle.
People who do not seek treatment for Bacterial Endocarditis may risk facing death.

car insurance uk

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Glass Industry Terms – Everything You've Always Wanted to Know About Glass But Were Afraid to Ask

What is frit? Frit is an industry term for the paint that is applied around the perimeter of the automotive glass parts. One of the key ingredients in frit is a glass ceramic particle that fuses to the glass surface making it a very durable and scratch resistant surface.

Why is frit (paint) on the glass? Frit serves two roles on the glass. First, it is a cosmetic feature that is used to hide interior trim and pinchweld details. Early model vehicles used wide moldings to obscure what would otherwise be exposed areas. As moldings became smaller to the point of nonexistence on several current models, the frit had a greater role in covering unfinished areas of the vehicle. Secondly, the frit inhibits UV degradation of urethane adhesives. While the frit will not completely block the UV rays from passing through the glass, it does significantly reduce UV light transmission. Most urethanes are not UV stable. If urethane is left exposed to sunlight for prolonged periods of time, it will yellow and turn chalky. Presence of the frit will extend the lifetime of the urethane adhesive system.

How many types of frit are there? There are hundreds of types of frits developed for automotive glass applications. The most common automotive glass frits we use are black, gray and white although other colors are available. Frit pastes are developed to work in combination with the processing requirements needed for a specific part. Each paste is developed for the specific furnace time and temperature parameters used to fabricate parts at a manufacturing location. It is not uncommon for a glass manufacturing facility to work with a dozen different frit pastes.

How is frit applied to the glass? Frit is applied to the glass utilizing a silk screen method. It is very similar to the method used to silk screen T-shirts. An image of the frit design is developed for the glass in the bent or curved shape. Then the image is unwrapped and flattened. A silk screen is made to allow the frit to pass through openings in the screen. The openings correspond to the final design image. The frit is a thick paste that is put onto the screen. Squeegees are used to push the frit paste through the screen openings and onto the glass. Frit is applied to the glass while it is in the flat position before it is processed through the furnace. The furnace helps to cure the frit and to fuse it to the glass surface. Every part with each different design has a unique silk screen. Silk screens are constantly being maintained throughout the life of a part. Because of the fragile nature of the screens, they will wear out and commonly need to be remade throughout the lifetime of a part in production.

What is Batch glass? Batch is a glass reference term that identifies a part of the manufacturing process. The raw components of glass are properly proportioned and mixed in batches for delivery to the furnace. Even though glass is made in a continual process that runs 24 hours a day, every day of the year, the raw materials are added as needed in batches. To state that a glass is batch glass, it implies that there is not any post manufacturing materials, ie a film or coating, applied to the glass. Batch glass gets all its characteristics from the raw materials that are used to make the glass. In the case of privacy or solar batch glass, the dark colorants and UV inhibitors are mixed in with the original ingredients in the batch to make the glass.

What is Float glass? Float glass refers to the glass manufacturing process. The raw components of glass are melted in a furnace between a temperature range of 240OF to 2850 F. A continual process is established as the molten glass is moved from the furnace to the tin bath where it is supported on molten tin until the glass cools from the slurry state to a temperature where the glass becomes solid. The float process was developed by Pilkington during 1950's and is now considered the primary state of the art process for manufacturing automotive and architectural glass.

What is the tin side and what is the air side of glass? As mentioned earlier, the float glass process involves floating molten glass on.molten tin. The molten tin is smooth enough to give glass its flat surfaces. The tin and glass are like oil and water, they do not mix. However, the side of glass that is in contact with tin during the float process does pick up a microscopic layer of tin. This is considered the tin side of float glass. The top side of glass is called the air or atmosphere side. To detect the tin side of glass, hold an UV light at an angle to the glass surface. The tin side will glow and the air side will not.

What is Soft-Ray and what is Solar-Ray '? Soft-Ray and Solar-Ray are GM Trademarks for the glass used in their vehicles. It identifies the TYPE of glass used for construction and can appear on either laminated or tempered glass. LOF uses EZ-Eye glass for the production of Soft-Ray parts and EZKool solar control glass for Solar-Ray parts. PPG uses Solex and Solar Green respectively. Deep Tint Solar-Ray is another GM trademark that appears on dark colored solar control parts.

What is a monogram? A monogram is often referred to as the bug or trademark. Every automotive piece of glass is required by law to have an identifying mark on the glass that will be visible once that glass is in the correctly installed position in the vehicle. These marks are usually painted on the glass, but they can also be sand blasted or acid etched into the surface.

What is in a monogram? For automotive applications, there are certain governmental items that must be in the monogram including a department of transportation (DOT) number, the model (M) number and the glass type (AS-1, AS-2, AS-3 etc.) monograms can also include information such as the brand name of the glass, the company name that made the glass, the company logo, the country of origin and a date code identifying when the glass was manufactured.

Is there anyway to determine what a part is by the monogram on the glass? Unfortunately, the majority of monograms do not have any information in it to help determine what an unmarked part is. However, we are starting to see more parts marked with the NAGS number in the Monogram. As more of this is done, it will be easier to correctly identify unknown parts.

2-What is the difference between AS-1, AS-2 and AS-3 glasses codes? For automotive applications, the three most common types of glass are AS-1, AS-2, and AS-3. All windshields must be marked with the AS-1 code which is on laminated glass having light transmission greater than 70%. All tempered glass that has light transmission above 70% is marked with an AS-2 code. All glass, laminated or tempered, that has less then 70% light transmission will have an AS-3 Code.

What is a DOT code? The DOT number identifies the glass manufacturer. The acronym DOT stands for Department of Transportation. Each glazing manufacture must apply for a DOT number in order to sell glazings for vehicles in the United States of America. Each DOT number is assigned by the government and is unique for every manufacturer. Every piece of glass that is made must contain that DOT code if it is to be sold in the automotive market.

What is an M number? The M number is a model number that is assigned by all glass manufacturing companies. Each company establishes their own M number system that is unique to that organization. The M number identifies the specific glass construction. It can identify the glass details used to manufacture a part such as glass color and thickness. One Model number might apply to 50 different part numbers. Each Model number is tested every year for compliance with the governmental regulations. Most of the time, a part number can not be determined by the M number.

How can I determine whether the glass in a car is original or a replacement? If you do not know the history of the car, one-way to identify a piece of glass is to check the monogram on the glass. If you, knew the manufacturer of the original glass, check the DOT (Department of Transportation) number on the glass in the car. If the DOT number does not belong to the OE glass supplier, then the part was a replacement. If the number does match, then check the date code on the glass. Most manufacturers mark the monogram with a means of identifying the month and year of glass production, sometimes even the date and shift! Since each company does it differently, you'll have to contact the appropriate manufacturer for their date code conventions, which can include combinations of letters, numbers or even dots over various letters. By comparing the date of the glass with the date of the car assembly, you can determine if they are the same vintage. If the glass date closely matches the vehicle assembly date, chances are the glass is original.

Which side of the vehicle is the right hand side? The RIGHT hand side of the vehicle is the PASSENGER'S side of the vehicle. The DRIVER'S side of the vehicle would be the LEFT-hand side. Rule of thumb, right and left sides are determined by picturing yourself sifting in the car.

When should a non-conductive adhesive be used? If the adhesive will contact the antenna or defroster lines when the part is installed, use a non-conductive adhesive. Non-conductive adhesives prevent interference with antenna systems and heated defroster systems that are contained in the glass. Many new glass parts have the antenna, defroster connections or buss bars around the edge of the glass in the same area that the adhesive is applied to install a glass part. Using a conductive adhesive will affect the performance of the electrical system. Several adhesive manufacturers offer a non-conductive product for these glass applications. Be sure to follow the manufacturers specific instructions for the adhesive system you use.

How do installation methods cause stress cracks? Installation related cracks usually result from a short cut out method, where all of the old urethane bed is not removed prior to installation. If the shape and form of the new glass is not identical to the old urethane bed, the glass could have spots of interference on the adhesive that lead to breaking. Installation related stress could also be formed by using adhesives that are too rigid and do not offer the compression and flexibility required of the adhesive system. Usually, installation related stress cracks would develop over time after the adhesive has been allowed to fully cure.

What is tempered glass? Tempered glass is a single piece of glass that is strengthened through a rapid cooling process. This cooling process tempers the glass by blasting both the top and bottom surfaces with air. The outside surfaces of the glass cool faster than the core of the glass. This action sets up a balance of strains between the surfaces and the core which adds considerable strength to the glass. Tempered glass is difficult to break, but if broken it breaks into small granular pieces.

How are tempered parts made? Glass of the specified thickness is cut to the desired size. Any artwork or paint design is applied to the glass while it is in the flat position. This includes any heated grid lines or antenna lines required on the final part. The glass is loaded into a furnace and is heated to temperatures of 12,000 F. There are multiple processes that could be used to bend the glass as it exits the furnace including roll.

How much force is required to break a tempered backlite? While the strength of tempered glass can seem very high, it is important to recognize that the manner in which tempered glass is broken will affect the strength. Tempered glass is extremely difficult to break with dull, blunt objects. Tempered glass can have a rupture strength of up to 24,000 pounds per square inch. Recall that tempered glass is produced by rapid cooling of the outside glass surfaces which sets up a stress / strain balance.

Why do the heated grid lines on heated backlites sometimes have a redbrown color and other times have a yellow color? The color of the grid lines is predominately determined by the surface of glass that they are printed on. The lines will have a dark appearance when printed on the tin side of glass. The lines will have a brighter yellow or amber color when printed on the air side of glass. Other colors, such as white or light gray, may indicate a potential manufacturing problem with the heated grid lines such as an under fired condition or too much silver. These can result in a heated backlite that does not function correctly.

Is it a defect to see discolored spot patterns on tempered glass? No, the discolored spot patterns on a piece of glass are actually a phenomenon of the tempering process. During tempering, air is forced onto the glass through hundreds of nozzles. The spots are areas where the cool air contacts the glass. The temper spot pattern can indicate how well a piece of glass is tempered. The size and consistency of the discolored areas will vary with the exact process used, but they are present on all tempered parts. The ability to see these patterns is dependent on the angle 'of installation and the lighting conditions. For example, it is easier to see the patterns on a sloping piece of glass at dusk than it is to see them on a vertical piece in bright sunlight.

What is an Innershield? The innershield is a layer of plastic on the innermost piece of glass which was most commonly used on the windshield. The innershield prevented lacerations on an occupant's head and face if they came in contact with the windshield in the event of an accident. The innershield was a popular option on deluxe vehicles about ten years ago.

How is a shadeband put into a windshield? The shadeband is pre-tinted onto the plastic that is placed between the glass plies. The plastic comes in rolls and one end of the roll has the shade color. During processing, it may be required to warp the plastic to curve the shadeband so it will match the curve of the top of, the windshield. After warping, the plastic is cut to size and it is ready to use.

What is delamination? Delamination is the separation of the glass plies and plastic layer in a laminated product such as a windshield. This is also known as an unbonded area (UBA) or an oil blow. Old autoclaving process used hot petroleum to laminate windshields and the oil could seep into the edges causing the windshield to delaminate.

What is bullet proof glass and how is it different from bullet resistant glass? Bullet proof glass is glass that will stop a bullet. Any bullet. To make a glass bullet proof, every type of bullet from every type of gun must be taken into consideration during the design of the glass. Bullet proof glass is actually a composite of glass and plastic layers laminated together to achieve a strong composite that will stop a bullet. Bullet proof glass will be three or more inches thick. Bullet resistant glass is designed for applications with a resistance to a range of specific bullet calibers. Bullet resistance glass can be obtained in a 3/4 inch thick composite of glass and plastics laminated together. On vehicle applications, the environmental end use is considered for the glass design. If a vehicle is outfitted with bullet proof or bullet resistant glazing, all the interior trim must also be reworked to accommodate the thicker glass.

What are stress cracks? Stress cracks are breaks from the edges of laminated glass, such as a windshield, that happen without an impact point or noticeable damaged area. While this phenomenon can occur with seemingly no apparent cause, there are however, two major factors that have a role in creating stress cracks. The stress crack can be caused by a manufacturing defect within the glass or it can be attributed to the installation methods.

How do glass defects cause stress cracks? Stress cracks can occur if the two plies of glass used to make the laminated part are not completely homogenous with each other. Stress cracks can be a condition of tension or compression that exist within the glass. Stress can also be caused by incomplete annealing or temperature difference between the plies. Manufacturing processes include multiple quality checkpoints for every individual part during production to identify and eliminate defective parts. Even so, it can be difficult to predict a stress crack due to manufacturing conditions.

I have often heard of a windshield surface referred to as the number 1, 2, 3 or 4 surface. What do these numbers mean? The windshield surface number refers to the glass surface of the individual glass plies in the laminated composite. A basic windshield construction is composed of two pieces of glass with a plastic layer in between. The surfaces are counted from OUTSIDE the vehicle. Therefore, surface number 1 is the outside surface of the exterior glass piece that would be exposed once installed in the vehicle. Surface number 4 is the innermost surface which would be on the interior of the vehicle once installed. Surface number 4 is the surface that is prepped with primers, cleaners and or activators required for installation. Surface # 2 and 3 are interior surfaces that are in contact with the plastic.

What is laminated glass? Laminated glass is constructed of two pieces of glass with a piece of plastic in between the glass plies. One type of plastic innerlayer used is PVB or polyvinyl butyral. Laminated glass is required to make windshields in the US.

How are windshields made? Two separate pieces of glass are cut to size. While the glass is flat it is printed with the artwork design (frit) that's required. The glass is put through a furnace to soften the glass and fire the frit to the glass surface. Once the glass reaches the right temperature, it is molded into shape and then cooled. After shaping, the glass / plastic / glass sandwich is put in a clean room and then put into an autoclave. An autoclave is like a giant pressure cooker. The high pressure squeezes the glass and plastic together. The higher temperature softens the plastic, which bonds the glass and plastic layers together. Once the glass exits the autoclave, any excess plastic is trimmed and the mirror mount is applied to the glass. The glass is inspected and cleaned several times throughout the entire process to make sure it has been manufactured to the highest quality standards. After a final inspection, the finished part is now ready to ship.

What is the Breakaway Bracket? Several new GM and Ford windshields have a Breakaway Bracket. This refers To the mirror button on the windshield. This style mirror button allows the rearviewmirror to snap off when the passenger air bag is deployed. If the rear view mirror did not snap off, there is a possibility that the mirror could puncture the air bag rendering it ineffective. The accessory tool used to remove these snap off rearview mirrors is the MB-4. TIP: Put Breakaway rearview mirrors back on the glass before installing the windshield. This will prevent moving a newly installed windshield out of place with the force required to snap the mirror on the glass.

How is a windshield glass molded into shape? There are two common practices for shaping a windshield, gravity bending and press bending. Gravity bending has been used longer than press bending. For gravity bending, two pieces flat glass ride through the furnace on a mold contoured like the finished part. As the glass softens, the force of gravity pulls the glass into shape. This pair of gravity bent glass is then kept together throughout the rest of the windshield process. In a press bending operation, the single lites of glass go through a furnace on a flat surface of high temperature resistant rollers. As the glass exits the furnace it is quickly pressed into shape between a male and female mold contoured like the finished product. The glass is then cooled and moved to the next process.

How can I determine if a diversity or non-diversity antenna backlite is needed? The diversity antenna will use a combination of antennas in order to perform efficiently. Most diversity-antennas are offered with vehicle upgrade packages. A standard car model may only have the mast antenna, whereas the deluxe luxury package may incorporate a diversity antenna in the backlite with the mast antenna. How to determine the need for a diversity antenna will differ depending on the vehicle. The current Toyota Camry has extra speakers (6 total) on the vehicle that uses a diversity antenna and only 4 speakers on the vehicle that uses the non-diversity antenna.

Can an antenna or heated backlite clip be reattached to the glass if it has fallen off? Clips, or tabs, can be reattached to the glass. In order to determine if the connection is repairable, the surface of the glass must be evaluated. If there are any chunks of glass (called spalls) missing from the surface, the repair should not be made and the glass should be replaced. Spalls will weaken the glass and could eventually result in glass breakage. Next, select the adhesive to be used to reattach the clips. There are a few companies that manufacture a conductive adhesive system that can be used to reattach the tabs. The adhesive must be conductive so it will allow the electrical current pass between the lines on the glass and the vehicle. Follow the manufacture's directions for the repair. Regular super glue adhesives will not work because they are non-conductive. HINT: Be sure to clean both the glass surface and the clip surface of old debris. Also, let the repaired part sit for the recommended cure time so the adhesive bond is fully developed.

Will a broken heated grid line on a backlite affect the operation of the antenna? Many new radio and cellular phone antenna designs are incorporated into the heated grid design in the backlite. If a heated grid line is broken it will affect the performance of the antenna. The line break will become more noticeable with the general public as diversity antennas gain popularity and reduce the need for traditional mast antennas. There are aftermarket grid line repair systems available which can restore both the heating and the antenna characteristics of the grid line.

What is a Rain Sensor windshield? Several vehicle manufacturers, including Cadillac, Mercedes Benz and BMW, are now offering Rain Sensor windshields. The rain sensor is actually a small electronic device mounted to the inside surface of the windshield. The device has a lens that will detect the presence of moisture on the outside surface of glass. When moisture is present, a signal is sent to the wiper control that automatically activates the windshield wipers. This a great safety option for those misty periods when a driver is passing trucks and road spray hits the windshield. The windshield wipers will activate without the need for the driver to remove his hands from the wheel or his eyes from the road.

Does the rain sensor module come on the replacement windshield? No. At this time, none of the rain sensor designs require the sensor to be applied by the manufacturer on the replacement windshields. The electronic sensor that is on the existing windshield in the car must be removed and re-mounted onto the replacement windshield.

How is the rain sensor attached to the replacement windshield? There are special re-attachment kits for the replacement industry, available through your local Car dealer, which can be used to re-attach the electronic rain sensor to the new windshield. The Cadillac kit consists of tape, cleaners and primers for replacing the Cadillac module. The Mercedes / BMW kit contains the tape and a new lens. Instructions for application are included in all the kits.

Is it normal for HUD display to appear faded in bright light conditions? Bright sunlight or high glare conditions can result in a dimmer display of the Head's Up display. It is normal for a HUD to appear brighter at night in darker conditions that during the day under full sun. It is not normal for the HUD to completely disappear. If the display is fading when the car changes momentum, such as when turning a corner or accelerating, then the problem could be a system defect and it's recommended that a dealer check out the electronics. There is nothing in the windshield to cause the display to fade or appear less intense.

What is a diversity antenna? A diversity antenna combines the reception from several individual antennas on the vehicle that makes it a very efficient antenna system. The definition of diverse means different, therefore a diversity antenna in a backlite is one that could Work with the mast (pillar) antenna mounted to the car. The two different antennas work together to achieve superior AM / FM radio reception. The 1998 Cadillac Seville has a diversity antenna system that consists of an antenna in the windshield and antenna in the backlite that work together.

What is a non-diversity antenna? A non-diversity antenna system relies on only one antenna for radio wave reception. Several examples of non-diversity antenna include 1) a mast antenna mounted to the vehicle 2) an antenna printed on the backlite or 3) a set of wires mounted into the windshield. A non-diversity antenna will not be a combination.

Can a break in a HUD (Heads-Up-Display) windshield be repaired or must it be replaced? A break in the HUD windshield can be repaired like a normal non-HUD windshield. If the repair area is in the HUD image area, a repair may interfere with the image causing a double or distorted image. Therefore, consideration is required to determine if the type and size of break is repairable without HUD interference.

Passivated glass refers to chemically coated glass. Many automotive glass parts are coated to achieve either the solar control characteristics or the privacy features. The coating can usually be detected by the reflective, mirror-like appearance. Sometimes these coatings will also have a color associated with them and can make the glass look blue, pink or amber. The solar coatings are used to filter out the sun's ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths while the privacy coatings filter out visible light wavelengths. The wavelengths that are filtered out by coated glass, include the wavelength spectrums that CB radios, cellular phones, automated toll readers and radar detectors operate on. Therefore, the chemically coated glass can interfere with the operation of electronic devices that require a glass-mounted antenna.

What type of glass is recommended for a glass-mounted antenna? Glass that is referred to, as BATCH glass is compatible with glass mounted antennas. Solar and privacy batch glass is not coated like the passivated glass. Instead, the raw materials that give the glass its solar or privacy characteristics are added at the time the glass is made. The raw materials are melted right in with the sand and other components that glass are constructed from. Once the glass has been made, it would not need any other treatments prior to fabrication into automotive glass parts. Batch glass is uniform throughout the thickness of the glass. Coated parts are surface treated; the surface has different properties than the core of the glass.

Are there any special hints for re-attaching the rain sensor? Make sure the glass is very clean prior to attaching the sensor. The performance of the sensors depends on the optically clear grades of doublefaced tape used for reattaching the units. These tapes also need to be clean and free of bubbles when applied to the glass. Any impurities that may be present will give a false signal to the rain sensor causing it to activate unnecessarily.

What does the term "Auto-Cancel" refer to in the NAGS catalog? The Auto Cancel notation means the electrical input to the heated backlite design is automatically canceled after a specified time and / or temperature. Most heated backlites made today are for automatic cancellation systems. However, there are a few parts such as the Isuzu Trooper backlites where a different glass heated design is required for the automatic vs. the manual systems. For example, FB4815 is for an automatic cancellation heated grid system whereas FB4816 is for a manual cancellation heated grid system. 8-What is the difference between a heavy-duty heated backglass and a standard heated backglass? The heavy-duty back glass is rated for higher amperage. The Heavy-Duty (HD) designation is predominately used on foreign cars such as Honda and Toyota vehicles. Normal domestic vehicles were rated for 22 amps whereas heated backlites in Asian vehicles were generally rated for 11 amps. Amperage relates to speed of performance. The higher the amperage, the faster the backglass will heat and clear the frost from the glass. To accommodate the US market, many foreign car manufacturers developed the HD back glasses to offer compatible defrosting performance in the US. The heavy-duty backglass are an upgrade, but it does not interchange with the standard design.

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