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Dyslexia-What Are Its Types?

A lot of people are getting confused with the meaning of the dyslexia.

What is dyslexia?

There are actually two different meanings of dyslexia.

The first meaning of dyslexia is the literal meaning since it is based on the etymology of the word itself, “Dys” means problematic or wrong then “lexia” means pertaining to letters or words. The literal meaning of dyslexia is problems with words. People that are having difficulty in reading has dyslexia.

The second meaning is more wider when it comes to its use and its application. This meaning is usually used by adults with dyslexia or parents of dyslexics. In the application aspect, dyslexia refers to different symptoms like problems with spelling, writing and reading, poor memory, does not have physical coordination and has difficulty in hearing.

This means that the word dyslexia really depends on how it is being used.

In the year 1973, Newcombe and Marshall divided the word dyslexia and they provided descriptions for every kind. The first ideas were about the double deficit dyslexia, surface dyslexia and phonological dyslexia.

Here are the different kinds of dyslexia:

A. Surface dyslexia

The symptom of surface dyslexia is when the person is having mistakes and is inconsistent with the English pronunciation. Here is an example, the word bowl is pronounced as howl and the word pretty is pronounced as jetty.

B. Phonological dyslexia

Phonological dyslexia actually refers to the failure of adapting the phonics of the English language. People find it hard to read new words if they have phonological dyslexia.

C. Double deficit dyslexia

There are people that have both kinds of dyslexia such as phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia and the term that they use for this condition is double deficit dyslexia.

D. Visual dyslexia and auditory dyslexia

These two kinds of dyslexia comes from the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. The magnocellular theory states, that people with dyslexia are neurologically weak in their magnocellular cells in the thalamus part of brain. This part of the brain is where they process visual and auditory information.

There are studies that proves that people with dyslexia have difficulties in processing auditory information and visual information.

Children that have poor visual skills but have average hearing skills can be diagnosed as visual dyslexia, and those children that have poor hearing skills but average visual skills are diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.diagnosed with auditory dyslexia.

E. Orthographic dyslexia

Orthography is a group of letters and symbols that creates a language. The english alphabet has 26 letters, while for the Chinese and Japanese language they have thousands of different kinds of symbols. This means that orthographic dyslexia refers to problems in manipulating and identifying letters in spelling, writing and reading.

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