Vessel & Rig Construction Insurance Options – What You Must Know

Builder's All Risk (BAR):

What is it? BAR coverage is first-party coverage which is essentially an all risk property policy, plus liability and protection and indemnity (P & I) extensions to it.

Who is to be included within the Named Assureds? The parties to be included within the Named Assured Clause include Builder, Sub-Contractors, Owners, Lenders if applicable, and other parties with insurable interests if applicable

Who is to have subrogation rights against them waived? All parties with whom the Named Assureds have agreed in their negotiations, in either a written or verbal contract, to waive the rights of subrogation should benefit from waiver of subrogation. Usually, Manufacturers of major equipment are not amongst the parties who receive the benefit of this waiver of subrogation; instead, they are held accountable for their product and uphold their warranties provided to the shipyard and are prepared to allow recourse against them for failure or defects in their product / equipment.

What is the period? We recommend that BAR coverage is in place during the entire course of the vessel's / rig's construction; ie, that coverage commence upon contract signing, remain in place during design and engineering phase, throughout construction, and cease upon delivery to owner, be it ex-Yard or at final Site following a transit.

What is the Sum Insured? This sum is usually specified in the construction contract between Builder and Owner, and should include the estimated Final Contract Value (FCV) plus the Owner-Furnished Equipment (OFE) [plus it can include the value of the incoming hull in the event of a conversion].

The inclusion of an Escalation Clause allows for coverage up to a certain percentage above the Estimated Total Sum Insured, the standard provision being 25% escalation.

In theory, the Builder's All Risk Underwriters reserve their capacity to ensure that they can pay four times (4x) the limit multiplied by the escalation provision. With an escalation provision of 25%, this means that Underwriters would require capacity to pay a claim of 500% of the Estimated Sum Insured, or 125% four times, ie, once for physical damage, once for collision liability, once for protection & indemnity, and finally once for sue & labor expenses. We say "in theory" because in practical application, Underwriters would likely come to a point of ceasing to pay sue & labor charges and instead pay the full amount of the physical damage / replacement costs.

An example wherein each coverage section is used is this:

During construction, an oily rag falls into the engine room sparking a fire which burns out of control and burns the lines mooring the vessel to the dock. The vessel breaks free from her moorings, and then collides with another vessel at an adjacent shipyard which causes damages in the hulls of both vessels. Then, the insured vessel keeps on floating away out of control. The shipyard personnel quickly hire a nearby tug in an attempt to slow the vessel and get in close enough proximity to fight the fire. The fire is not brought under control and the vessel eventually sinks in a shipping channel. What is recoverable under a broad Builder's Risk policy?

  • First party physical damage to be recoverable under the All Risk main section
  • Damage to the other vessel at the adjacent shipyard to be recoverable under the Collision Liability section
  • Wreck removal costs to be recoverable under the P & I section
  • Sue & Labor costs incurred by the hire of the tug boat and any fire fighting expenses to be recoverable under the Sue & Labor section

What are the Situation / places of coverage ? We recommend that the Situation is territorial coverage which includes the movement of material and equipment between yards and various contractors' yards. Additionally, we recommend ensuring the adequate distance that will be required during sea trials is specifically expressed within the coverage. (This is usually 250NM.)

If required, coverage can include items to become part of the vessel / rig under construction while in storage at Suppliers' warehouses – usually those in relatively close proximity to the shipyard or else those specifically declared to Underwriters.

Coverage for Owner-Furnished Equipment (OFE) usually commences under the BAR section from the point whereby a Named Assured inspects and accepts delivery of same at the port near the relevant shipyard (either on land or at sea).

What comprises the Interest that is covered? We recommend that all contract works that are to comprise the new construction are included within the covered Interest. This includes all Contract Works of the Shipyard plus Sub-Contractors in respect of the construction in all its phases, including design, engineering, procurement, strike steel, keel-laying, fabrication, construction, dry-docking, undocking, installation of equipment, fitting out, supply of all materials pre-commissioning, testing, commissioning, sea trials and all works until delivery of the unit.

What are the parts of coverage usually afforded under BAR coverage?

a. Property All Risk – Subject to specific terms , conditions & exclusions, marine builder's risk insurance (BAR) covers the builder / owner (others with an insurable interest – as specified in the policy) of a vessel / rig under construction against physical loss of, or damage to, the vessel / rig caused and discovered during the period of insurance. We recommend that any restrictions be removed; common ones in standard policies include those for earthquake, volcanic eruption, faulty design, and faulty welds.

b. Collision Liability – Sums paid by the respective Yard to any other person (s) arising out of the Yard's legal liability to pay sums for the following damages, as consequence of any vessel the Yard is working on coming into collision with any other vessel:

  • Loss or damage to any other vessel or property thereon
  • Delay to, or loss of, use of any other vessel or property thereon
  • General average, salvage of, salvage under contract of, any such other vessel or property thereon.

c. Protection & Indemnity (P & I)

Sums paid by Yard to any other party arising out of Yard's legal liability to pay sums for the following damages, as a consequence of an accident or occurrence during the policy period:

  • Loss or damage to any fixed, movable, property or any other thing or interest whatsoever
  • Any attempted or actual raising, removal, destruction of any fixed movable object or property or other thing, including the wreck of a vessel, or any neglect to raise, remove or destroy same
  • Liability assumed by the Yard under contracts of customary towage for purpose of entering or leaving the port or maneuvering within a port
  • Loss of life, personal injury, illness, and payments made for life salvage.

d. Sue & Labor – Sums paid for the following expenses, as a consequence of an occurrence during the policy period, incurred in attempts to minimize recoverable loss:

  • In case of any loss or misfortune, it is the duty of the Assured and their servants and agents to take such measures as may be reasonable for the purpose of averting or minimizing a loss which would be recoverable under this insurance.
  • Subject to the provisions of this clause, the Underwriters will contribute to charges properly and reasonably incurred by the Assured their servants or agents for such measures. General average, salvage charges, collision defense or attack costs and costs incurred by the Assured in avoiding, minimizing or contesting liability.
  • Measures taken by the Assured or the Underwriters with the object of saving, protecting or recovering the subject-matter insured shall not be considered as a waiver or acceptance of abandonment or otherwise prejudice the rights of either party.

What else should be considered / looked at with BAR policy?

  • Deductibles – Are they at levels that the Assureds can comfortably absorb? Do they apply per occurrence and / or in the aggregate?
  • Complete, detailed list of security and the ratings of the insurance companies and / or Syndicates participating on the risk
  • Wording in detail – including endorsements, exclusions, qualifications, subjectivities, sub-limits, Warranties (Conditions Precedent), adjustment factors applicable to premium, cancellation provisions
  • Confirmation that accurate and proper underwriting information, including loss histories, was presented to Underwriters who are providing coverage for the risks
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Why is Hazard Insurance Required by the Mortgage Company?

Buying a home can be an exciting time and it can also be a stressful time. After you found the home of your dreams you will now need to get approved for a mortgage and find hazard insurance. Mortgage companies require many things to protect their investment because after all it is their money on the line. If you are like most people buying a house today you will probably only put down approximately 3 to 5 percent of the total purchase price. This leaves the other 95 to 97 percent owned by the insurance company. The lender will require you to insure the property with what is commonly known as hazard insurance. I will explain why they require this insurance and answer common questions about hazard insurance.

Hazard insurance is a term used by most mortgage lenders and is no different than homeowners insurance. When your mortgage lender tells you that they need proof of hazard insurance they are really looking for a home insurance policy that will protect against major hazards like fire or wind. If something like a tornado hits your home the mortgage company wants to make sure their investment is covered. Until you pay off your mortgage in full the lender will require you to carry hazard insurance.

Here are some standard insurance requirements your lender will ask for:

Dwelling Coverage

The physical structure is commonly referred to as the dwelling. This coverage encompasses the entire house but can exclude separate items like a shed. Dwelling coverage is calculated by various factors including livable square feet, construction materials used and year build. These variables help the insurance company determine how much it will cost if the entire structure needs to be rebuild.

Most mortgage companies want to see that your dwelling coverage meets or exceeds the loan amount. This is just another way for the lender to make sure the full investment is covered. Do not confuse the market value of your home with the dwelling coverage as they can be vastly different since the dwelling coverage does not account for the value of the land. When shopping for hazard insurance be sure to ask the agent what they recommend for dwelling coverage because you do not want to be under insured when a claim is needed.


Similar to your auto insurance there is a deductible on your home insurance policy. If you file a claim this is your out of pocket expense. Some mortgage companies will only accept a deductible that is less than $ 2500. They will require a lower deductible so you can afford to file the claim and repair the home. If your deductible was $ 5000 you may not replace the roof after a bad hail storm which could cause further damage to the home. Most insurance companies will offer deductibles ranging from $ 500 to $ 1500 but other amounts are available. Be sure you understand what your deductible is and if you have a fixed dollar or percentage deductible.

Fixed dollar deductibles will never change in amount but a percentage deductible will change with the increase in dwelling coverage. For example if you have $ 200,000 in dwelling coverage with a 1 percent deductible that would make your out of pocket expense $ 2000 to file a claim. Each year the dwelling coverage will likely increase with inflation making your deductible increase as well.

These are some common reasons why mortgage companies require hazard insurance and what they are looking for in your policy. The Lowest the find to Price Policy Available Getting a try Multiple insurance quotes Online .

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Homeowners Guide to Home Insurance Discounts, Reduced Rates and Savings

In today's economy, many homeowners are juggling higher bills on less earnings – facing tightened family budgets in the wake of rising costs, credit limits or even job loss. Yet there's no need to struggle with the cost of home insurance. Despite industry increases, homeowners may be able to reduce their insurance rates by as much as 30 percent.

Nevertheless, many homeowners are not using insurance discounts to lower rates – even those who apply discounts may qualify for more savings than they're getting. And lowered rates are still possible, even in today's economy.

Consider the findings reported by independent insurance agent association, Trusted Choice, in a 2009 national survey:

"53 million household respondents 'admitted they are probably not taking advantage of all homeowners insurance discounts or said that they simply did not know' about policyholder discounts they likely qualify for."

The survey also found that the largest percentage of respondents, about 26%, estimated they save 6-10% on their insurance premiums by using discounts. In fact, many insurance consumers could be saving significantly more-as much as 30%, according to independent insurance agencies, which often shop on behalf of consumers and help them find discounts and compare rates.

Homeowners are usually aware of the more common discounts – such as a multiple policy discount to insure both home and auto under one carrier. But there are other discounts and savings they miss.

How savvy are you as a homeowner and insurance consumer?

Find out using this quick list to explore or measure your potential for insurance discounts. It's also the knowledge you and your insurance agent need to reduce rates for savings:

  • Dual duty – Do not overlook the most common discount available: multiple policy discounts. When the same company insures your home and car, you can probably reduce your overall insurance costs by 10 to 15 percent.
  • New home, new homeowner? The same criteria used to qualify your home for a specific mortgage is often the same that qualifies your policy for discounts.
  • Living in a gated community? Then you may be eligible for discounts. Be sure to ask about auto insurance discounts if your car is equally 'protected' to boot.
  • Rooftop savings – Some insurance companies offer hail resistant roof discounts for Class 4 roofs – naturally these credits may vary with locale. Moreover, be sure to ask your insurer about potential discounts before putting a new roof on your house – you'll probably want to capture savings if available and a flat roof without roof warranty may disqualify you from your current coverage altogether.
  • Be a new policyholder – You may find additional savings extended to new customers based on new rating models that offer a 'sign up' discount. If your insurer extends this discount, your insurance agent might be able to capture it by applying for a new policy with the same company.
  • Your track record counts – make sure you explore discounts for home insurance customers who have a claim-free track record … when was the last time you filed a home insurance claim? A 10-year history usually qualifies you for this discount; if you've never filed a claim, you may save as much as 20 percent.
  • Risk reductions – Ask your agent to identify risk reduction discounts addressing a range of interior and exterior factors: fire and smoke alarms, electrical wiring, fireplace / chimney safety, heating apparatus, burglar alarms, curb and gutter system and landscaping elements. Proximity to a fire hydrant and your community's fire department also applies.
  • Preventive maintenance and home security – Make sure your insurance agent is aware of any alarm systems or preventive measures you take to secure property and to keep your home safe. Though discount criteria varies, you may be able to get a savings of 10 to 15 percent for a combined system that may include two or more measures: deadbolt locks, lockable garages and storage buildings, fire alarms, fire sprinklers, fire extinguishers, a burglar alarm or home security system.
  • Good breeding gone bad – Like it or not, some pets have a reputation. You may adore your family pet but if Fido is a dog breed considered bite-happy or dangerous, your insurance rating may be affected or your coverage in jeopardy. Choose your pet wisely – be aware of the little issues that can turn your insurance into a big issue.
  • Score card – Expect your credit score to impact your home insurances rates. If married, you may be able to reduce your rate by listing the top scorer as the first named on the insurer's application. Plus, if you've had a less-than credit score and recently improved your numbers, let your insurance agent know. You may be able to get a policy adjustment: a lower insurance rate is still possible without the need to write a new policy.
  • Raise the limit – consider the difference a deductible makes. You can probably lower your rate by raising your deductible – $ 2,500 is the standard deductible and you can expect a lower rate if you raise it to $ 5,000.
  • Agent vs. agent and the extended marketplace – Is your insurance agent an independent who can tap a broad product range? Or an agent affiliated with a name-brand company? Know the difference. Independent agents can shop around – explore options across the marketplace. Brand agents do not usually have the same agility – they're usually confined to the company practice or limited to brand products. Loyalty counts. Still, if you're committed to one company brand you may be just as limited as the insurance agent who is equally missing rate reductions, discounts and savings offered by the brand's competition.
  • 'Home pride' and stewardship are vital – Even many insurance agents do not understand the role that stewardship plays in harnessing the broadest range of discounts possible. Why? The better care you take of your home, the more attractive you'll look to insurance carriers. And the best way to harness discounts is to identify as many discounts as possible – it stands to reason that more companies mean more potential for discounts.

So, you'll want to make sure your home qualifies for coverage from every company that offers coverage in your locale since increased competition generally decreases rates and opens your access to discounts.

In a nutshell, homeowners applying the discounts above will soon realize the many ways they can save on their home insurance – even when times are tough.

Get started on discounts for savings ….

  • Shop around to compare insurance company providers and rates – what companies provide home insurance in your community?
  • Get guidance on the details – an independent insurance agent is not tied to one brand, so these agents can help you see the whole marketplace and get the apples-to-apples lens you need to compare products, coverage and rates.
  • Identify discounts – make sure you identify the common discounts most homeowners hit, along with other discounts that frequently miss.
  • Do the 'homework' – the work at home that demonstrates stewardship makes you eligible to select from the broadest insurance product range possible.
  • Optimize selection, and then maximize discounts to benefit from reduced raters and savings.
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The Truth About Personal Injury Protection – & Some Myths

Trying to get insurance cover can be a real minefield to most people. It is almost always an unbelievably expensive item with respect to the family budget. Unfortunately however, it can be horrendously costly in another way if the cover is not appropriate or does not cover the intended items. Let's look at the main types of cover and attempt to throw a little light on the subject.

The best automobile insurance policies will include the following items: uninsured motorist coverage, personal property liability, collision coverage, body liability liability, comprehensive coverage and personal injury protection (PIP). Some of these elements are required by all states while others are not required. Collision coverage pays for all damages to a vehicle or other vehicle when it is in collision with another automobile or other vehicle or non-vehicular object, even if the insurance holder is at fault. Comprehensive insurance policies protect the insurance holder in the unrestitution situation that their automobile or other vehicle is taken without the owner's permission, damaged illegally, harmed by an act of nature or damaged otherwise. Both of these kinds of insurance are always optional and are usually very expensive.

Bodily injury and personal property insurance are required by all US states in one way way or another. Where the states differ very much in the minimum guaranteed payout that is set for each. For example, in Alaska, a driver is required to carry coverage that has a guaranteed minimum bodily injury payout of $ 100,000. In Florida, a driver is only required to carry coverage worth $ 10,000.

Many elements of an auto insurance policy that could be optional are cover for the uninsured motorist and personal injury protection. The coverage for the uninsured motorist protects the insurance holder in case he or she has an accident with an uninsured person. It provides the insurance policies that should probably have been supplied by the other party. PIP, in the event of an accident, pays for the medical expenses and other asserted damages caused by the insurance holder and their passengers (or if the insurance holder is an injured pedestrian). Carrying personal injury protection is mandatory in: Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Oregon and Utah.

Even if personal injury protection is not mandatory in your state, you may still want to consider purchasing the insurance policies. PIP, in the event of an accident, will pay around 80% (depending on insurance policies limits) of the costs of the insurance holder and passengers. These costs include medical bills, lost wages and other asserted expenses. Personal injury protection is a no-fault policy, so it will cover you and your passengers, even if the reason for claim was your fault.

Personal injury protection, sometimes known as Medical Payment Insurance or Medpay, is a no-fault insurance policies for a couple of reasons. Firstly, the fact that blame does not have to be confirmed saves time and there before allows medical payments to get into the pockets of the injured parties as soon as possible.

Secondly, it saves everyone from the cost of lawsuits being filed so that responsibility can be proved for an accident and therefore who has responsibility for the bills. One time a personal injury protection policy may allow for a lawsuit is when serious injury or death occurs.

Before you purchase personal injury protection, you would be advised to take a look at your current policies and see whether or not the insurance policies offered by personal injury protection is duplicated elsewhere. It could be that the cost of lost wages and medical bills may be recovered through an existing health insurance policy. If this is the case, then you may need minimal personal injury protection or none at all. Your driving habits will also help determine whether or not you need personal injury protection. Do you carry passengers on a regular basis? While your health insurance may cover your own medical expenses, it will not cover those of your passengers (unless they are members of your family who are on your health plan). Ask your regular passengers about their own health insurance policies and its coverage. If they are inadequately covered or not covered at all, you need personal injury protection in order to keep them covered. This may seem like the thin end of the wedge, especially if you're the one driving an office car pool, however, the safety of any passenger riding in your car is always going to be your responsibility.

If you stay in a state that requires personal injury protection you will need to know the minimum amount of cover you must have because this has already been decided for you. If you live in a state where personal injury protection is not mandatory however, you may decide that you need the extra insurance policies anyway. How much insurance policies you need depends, mainly, on your age. If you are middle-aged or older, have good health and liability insurance policies, then you will need minimal personal injury protection insurance policies. If, on the other hand, you are young, just starting out and still do not have much in the way of health and liability insurance, you will want to protect yourself, your family and your future by carrying as much insurance as you can Afford. This is especially true if you have a young family or if you constantly carry others in your automobile or other vehicle.

So there we have it, whenever you require PIP and at what level, depends on several factors: where you live, your driving habits, your employment, your health, your personal circumstances and your level of existing cover. Whatever your circumstances however, you need to research it carefully so that you can rest easy knowing that you are safely covered.

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Insurance Required During Construction Or Conversion of Vessels Or Rigs

1. Builder's All Risk Insurance:

Usually during the contract negotiation stage, when it is as yet unclear as to which party will be accepting which liabilities, which party will be responsible for procuring the insurance and absorbing the deductibles, etc., both parties look more deeply into the breadth of available BAR coverage.

We can say that Builder's Risk Insurance for the energy class of business provides coverage under three different forms:

  1. London Institute Builder's Risk Clauses 1.6.88 (CL 351) – or American equivalent
  2. WELCAR form
  3. Custom forms tailor-made to specific risks or Owners or shipyards.

Is the protection provided under all BAR policies the same? No! For a comparison between words please contact a trusted insurance broker of your choice.

2. War Risks and Strikes, Riots, Civil Commarations (SRCC):

A. Institute War Claus Builder's Risks 1/6/88 (CL 349) –

Coverage attempts once the vessel is launched (or wet) and provides coverage for loss of or damage to the insured vessel / rig caused by:

  • War, civil war, revolution, rebellion insurrection, or civil strife arising therefrom, or any hostile act by or against a bellegerent power
  • Capture seizure arrest restraint or disadvantage, arising from perils covered above, and the consequences thereof or any attempt thereat
  • Derelict mines torpedoes bombs or other derelict forces of war.

B. Institute Strikes Clauses Builders' Risks 1/6/88 (CL 350) –

Provides coverage for loss of or damage to the insured vessel / rig caused by:

  • Strikers, locked-out workmen, or persons taking part in labor distortions, riots or civil commotions
  • Any terrorist or any person acting maliciously or from a political motive.

We recommend that this coverage be amended to include Vandalism and Malicious Mischief.

Please also review if the terrorism coverage provided under this case is either restricted or broadened, or if there are any other applicable clauses such as Sabotage & Terrorism Endorsements. In any case, be sure that the coverage afforded is adequate for your Client so your Client makes an informed decision.

3. Liability – Insurance coverage that protects an insured against claims made by third parties for damage or injury to their property or person. These losses usually come about as a result of negligence of the insured. In marine construction, this policy is referred to an MGL, marine general liability policy. In non-marine circumstances, the policy is referred to as a CGL, commercial general liability policy. The construction contract should determine which parties are liable in which instances for losses of Third Party Liability nature.

Insurance policies can be divided into three broad categories:

  1. Product Liability – Protection against a Manufacturer's liability for injuries or property damage after a manufactured product has been sold. Extraordinary liability companies are the manufacture of a product.
  2. Completed Operations – Protection against a Contractor's liability for injuries or property damage suffered by Third Parties as a result of the Contractor completing an operation.
  3. "Trips & falls & damage" – Protection against injuries or property damage on premises or hulls within care, custody, control of a party.

4. Umbrella Liability – This type of liability insurance provides excess liability protection. Your business needs this coverage for the following reasons:

  • It provides excess coverage over all "underlying" liability insurance carried.
  • Instead of purchasing a large limit on all of an insured's policies, this structure allows an insured to purchase the coverage once to sit atop various policies, thereby increasing the limit for many policies.
  • We recommend that this coverage provide automatic replacement coverage for under policies that have been reduced or exhausted by loss.

5. Additional coverage available for consideration during the construction phase:

  1. Cargo / Transit Insurance – to protect against All Risks of loss of or damage to the shipments of material, equipment, etc. That will form part of the construction (ie, the topsides from Russia to the UK)
  2. Marine Delay in Start-Up – to protect against lost profit plus extra expenses due to the delay in arrival of critical components; For instance, due to thrusters being dropped into the water during loading of vessel – causing a 3-month delay in project (due to back-order of specific thrusters required per specifications)
  3. Hull & Machinery & Protection & Indemnity Insurance – to protect against All Risks of loss or damage to the vessel / rig – and liabilities resulting from the vessel / rig – during transport after completion at Yard (for instance, if delivery is not ex- Yard, but rather at final drilling site)
  4. Hull & Machinery & Protection & Indemnity Insurance – to protect against All Risks of loss of or damage to any vessels / crane barges that might be used to assist in the construction of the vessel / rig
  5. Liquidated Damages Insurance – to protect against penalties for failure to satisfies an agreement; For instance, for late delivery of unit due to losses of a BAR nature
  6. Political Risk Insurance – to protect a foreign entity against loss suffered due to political risk nature (including Confiscation, Nationalization, Expropriation, Selective Discrimination, Contract Frustration, Inconvertibility & Non-Transfer of funds, etc.)
  7. Professional Indemnity (PI) Insurance – to protect against legal liability arising from any professional negligent act, error or omission in rendering or failing to render professional services by an Assured. We recommend that you look into the design and engineering work and contractual requirements and track records involved in the rig, and see what protections are already in place.

The standard requirements of both Owners and Shipyard:

  1. Workmen's Compensation / Employers' Liability as required by applicable statement
  2. Auto Liability as required by applicable statement

6. Coverage available for the shipyard post-delivery (relating to the construction phase):

  1. Following delivery of a unit to an Owner, usually Maintenance & Discovery coverage is purchased.
  2. Warranty coverage is also possible.

What is the difference between Maintenance Coverage of a Builder's Risk Policy and Warranty Coverage?

The Maintenance Cover is simply an extension of the Builder's Risk policy, which in this case survives delivery of the vessel to the owner, with coverage being no leader than that contained elsewhere in the policy, subject to all of the conditions and exclusions of that policy .

The Warranty Coverage is "back-to-back" protection of the Assured's contractual Warranty Clause to Owner. This means that the Warranty Clause from the contract actually becomes the insuring condition of the Warranty Policy.

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Why People Think Diving Are A Good Idea

Do You Want to Try Scuba Diving

Having a new thing to experience this summer will make it worth and one sure shot to have fun is to have scuba diving. When you try out scuba diving, you may see that you have skills that were initially hidden from your knowledge. Scuba diving might be very helpful in a sense that you get the skills once you partake in scuba diving classes. In the event that you need to go to the enrollment, you have to search for a club that will present to you the most essential things to ace scuba diving. Scuba jumping is a hard task for beginners. You would want to avoid some difficulties on the actual diving event so you have to involve yourself in scuba diving.

It is essential for you to search for a club that is prepared to acknowledge you as a part of their scuba diving class. If you involve yourself in a diving club, you should see their exercises first. When you are an individual from a club, it will be sensible for you to truly take after the instruction. Besides that, the club should give you a chance to go to a few sessions where you will know a few scuba diving lessons in wearing the correct equipment. Scuba diving classes will really help you. Getting yourself underwater and submerging yourself while in scuba diving classes will definitely help you improve so you won’t have troubles in the actual.

What you have to do this time is to go to scuba diving sessions frequently for you can never benefit confirmation without it. What you have to do is to just consider getting the certification as quickly as time permits with the goal that you can begin to jump. Other than that, you should find a very capable group who will be supportive and very good in teaching and guiding you through this venture.

What you have to do this time is to join the club and later talk with the general population that you will be joining with in the session. Once you have a friends, you can share ideas and make discussions with them because that will widen you knowledge about scuba diving and they will help in your decisions about diving. Once you have gotten that into the bag, you will have the ability to get with them when you have free time outside scuba diving class lessons so that you will have discussions about scuba diving, too. You will love to experience nature underwater and you will even imagine that you need to help in saving the ocean since they are a piece of nature and they even influence your own particular survival.

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Tax Considerations for Self-Employed Consultants: Auto Expenses and More

Mary Kay, Lia Sophia, Silpada, 5Linx, Pampered Chef – to name a few …. These are just a handful of the self-employed consultants in the work world. Many of them are sole proprietors who have little to no understanding of the tax implications associated with it, the tax deductions available to them, or what they need to do to file taxes.

It is extremely important not to co-mingle deductible expenses with personal expenses. Opening a bank account for the business will help keep the expenses separate. This should be one of the first things on the list of "to-do's" when beginning a business. A special tax treatment applies to start-up expenses-expenses incurred prior to opening the business. Therefore, these receipt must be kept separate from the receipts for general operating expenses.

One type of deduction that helps to reduce the overall tax liability is the auto expense deduction. Auto expenses are deductible either by using the standard mileage rate or actual expenses. The standard mileage rate is the easiest method as you simply multiply the current rate ($ .555 for 2012) by the total number miles. When using the standard mileage rate, a mileage log will need to be presented in the event of an audit to substantiate the deduction. The actual expense method requires you to keep detailed records reflecting the actual cost of related expenses such as gas, oil, insurance, repairs, maintenance, licenses, car washes and depreciation. If you use a vehicle for both business and personal purposes, the expenses will have to be divided proportionately.

While most business owners are aware of the deduction for meals and entertainment, they must be careful to keep accurate records when claiming discounts for these expenses. The records should contain the date of the meal or event, the name of the person they met with and the topic of conversation when possible. Meals that are consumed during the everyday course of business are not deductible. However, generally 50% of the cost of meals consumed when traveling for business purposes can be used to reduce taxable income.

The IRS allows a home-based business deduction for self-employed taxpayers if they meet certain requirements. The home must be used regularly and exclusively for business. When taking advantage of the home-based business obligations, a percentage of other expenses relating to the home are deductible as well. The amount of deductible expenses is subject to specific limitations and ordering provisions. Please consult a tax professional for guidance.

This article contains general tax information for taxpayers. Each tax situation may be different, so do not rely upon this information as your sole source of authority. Please seek professional advice for all tax situations. Tax professionals are experts who keep current on tax law changes. They can save you time and offer insight on how to use the tax breaks available to you.

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Why People Think Diving Are A Good Idea

Scuba Diving Certification – How to Obtain One

Scuba diving really is a great sport, and even though it uses a lot of dedicated equipment, it is rather easy to obtain scuba diving certification.

But before you can get certified, you need to have a few basic things in place. While scuba diving is exciting and fun, it can be dangerous at the same time. You cannot risk making any error when you are already at the bottom of the sea.

Firstly, you have to be capable of swimming. This maybe obvious, but it is crucial that you’re a convincingly strong in addition to being a competent swimmer. Majority of scuba diving certification will require you to have the ability to swim about 200 yards adeptly with any kind of stroke. You are also supposed to be capable of treading water or floating for 10 minutes. If you want to engage in scuba diving, it is important as well that you are healthy. Health is generally a consideration, but you need also to be healthy during the dive.
Scuba diving if you are suffering from a head cold is obviously not a good idea, and could result to problems like a burst eardrum.

If you are searching for scuba diving classes or school, start out by inquiring from friends in addition to family, or try asking from your community center or local YMCA. Explore what the school has to offer on the course you are contemplating, and check if the instructor has certification to teach lessons on scuba diving. It is imperative to choose the scuba diving training that is both the most excellent in addition to the safest.

Considering that there are lots of scuba diving certification agencies out there, it makes sense to verify which ones are nearer to where you are at. Not all of them will use the same approach to scuba diving and this is something that you need to take into account. On the other hand, popular agencies will usually offer almost the same training in terms of recreational scuba and will acknowledge each other’s qualifications. Several schools have programs that grant you a well-accepted certification, for instance a Professional Association of Diving Instructors or PADI. You will be able to dive in most places worldwide if you take this with you.

One very important thing to consider — if you do not feel comfortable and safe at any time, do not dive. Practice your diving skills comprehensively before heading out to somewhere you are uncertain about. If you repeat your skills over and over again, you will be quick to react rationally should anything goes wrong. Ask the instructor to go over anything any scuba diving instruction you don’t understand. Asking a lot of questions during scuba diving training and getting it right is definitely better than ending up with insufficient scuba diving know-how.

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Feng Shui Animal Symbolism

The role of both real and mythological animals is referred to frequently in feng shui theory and folklore. In many books, there is a description of an ideal house, which has a turtle behind it, a phoenix bird in front of it, and a dragon and tiger on either side. These four animals are symbolic of land and building formations. For example, to have a turtle behind the house for support or protection is a metaphor for a larger structure or a literal mountain. To have a bird in the front is symbolic for a much smaller land formation.

There is a concept that "chi" (air currents) move around a property and the higher land form in back (the turtle) protects the house, while a smaller land form in front (bird) helps the house receive the proper amount of chi . Like the edge of a bowl, the phoenix in front helps shore up or contain energy near the entrance of the house.

Then, the tiger and dragon on each side of the house represent neighboring houses, buildings, or real hills. These forms act as a way of protecting the house. In a general sense, a house that is not surrounded by other structures or land formations is a bit vulnerable and overly exposed to the elements. Some people take these references to the animals literally and they will place figurines of these creatures around their home for good luck and protection. At least one feng shui master I have studied with has alluded to the possibility that these animals also represent the shapes of certain important constellations.

Another popular feng shui creature is the fish. Fish symbolize long life in Chinese culture, so paintings and sculptures of them are seen as lucky. In the actual application of feng shui, fish in tanks and ponds are just an excuse to help circulate water. It is the water, which is the real remedy. But because feng shui comes from a very superstitious culture, the number of fish and the color of the fish in the aquarium have taken on exaggerated significance. As well, different types of birds are supposed to be omens for the occupants if the bird is seen flying by or creating a nest on the roof.

The image of a horse can not help but to symbolize travel and movement. One folk remedy is to place a Horse figurine facing the door for occupants who want to sell their home.

Lions and tigers are considered powerful, ferocious animals. Representations of them in pictures or sculptures should be done with caution, according to people who adhere to these animal cures. You may have seen stone lions flanking the entrance or stairs of a large building, but they would be considered inappropriate for a residence.

One of the Zodiac signs in Chinese astrology is a Tiger. Women who are the sign of the Tiger are considered fiercely independent and have a more difficult time settling down with a man. February is the month of the Tiger and according to auto insurance statistics, more car accidents occur in the month of February. This would be consistent with the Chinese interpretation that the fast-moving Tiger is also accident-prone.

It is interesting to note some of the cultural differences in how we relate to animals. For instance, in Chinese astrology a person born in the Year of the Rat can be a very intelligent person and a Snake person can easily be interested in metaphysics and spirituality. In the West, we think of the rat and snake as being sneaky and conniving. In some religions there is a belief that all human beings have lived at least one incarnation as every type of animal, and therefore we have an unconscious understanding of what these animals are capable of in their personalities and strengths.

Some birds are more monogamous than people, so there is a notion that putting up pictures of lovebirds in the bedroom will attract true love. These kinds of things can work as placebos, but are not considered the most sophisticated feng shui remedies.

Elephants have a reputation in both Chinese and Indian culture for attracting wealth. Images of trunk-up elephants often adorn the homes of people hoping the elephant will be a lucky image for them.

There are many more animals that have meaning in Chinese culture and / or specific to feng shui. Supposedly, a metal Rooster placed in the proper location can stop someone from committing an adulterous affair. Taken out of context, these animal symbols can seem strange, but they are really not much stranger than the meanings we attach to some inanimate objects in the Western world. Be it a country's flag, a car hood ornament, a designer label, or a religious sign, we place importance on many symbols that go unnoticed or unrecognized by other cultures.

Many people are surprised to find out that I do not prescribe any of these animal symbols as feng shui remedies. While I understand the psychological relief that they may provide, I do not feel that these symbols can change the energetic composition of a room. And with symbols ultimately being very personal, (like our dreams), I do not see how they would work for everyone in the same manner.

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How to Save Money: Two Methods of Saving Money Put to the Test

So, you get your paycheck and after you recover from the shock at how little is left after taxes, you try to divvy it up among all your outstanding bills, intending to put whatever is left over into your savings. Does this sound familiar? Moreover, I bet that there never seems to be anything left over to put into your savings. Am I right?

How can you save money? If you are attempting to save what is "left over" at the end of the month after you pay your bills then you are approaching the saving of money backwards. I have often read that you should pay yourself first. I decided to put this to the test.

One of my recent goals has been to save $ 400 a month. In order to test this theory of "pay yourself first", I set $ 200 to be auto transferred to my savings account at the beginning of every month. The other $ 200 I entered into quicken so that I would be reminded transfer this amount out of my account at the end of the month, which I would do manually.

The results over these last few months have been consistent. The auto debited beginning of the month $ 200 has been saved every month without fail. Okay, I know it seemed obvious that would happen since I am transferring the money immediately and at the beginning of the month, but I get paid every two weeks, so my pay checks are spread throughout the month. However, I also entered the second $ 200 savings to quicken so that it would seem like it was already transferred.

Did I save that other $ 200 I was going to put away manually? Absolutely not. I never managed to save the total amount in any month. I wish I could tell you exactly why this happens from a psychological standpoint but I can not. It probably has something to with the fact that I knew I still had the money in my account even if it was subconsciously, because with the money that is auto debited my brain decided that money was no longer available to be spent.

This is why I urge people build up their savings slowly and automatically. It does not matter if you only have $ 10 to save a month, gradually increase the amount you are saving every few months and make those saving automatic. You will be surprised at how quickly your savings account will grow.

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